- Cardiovascular Reactivity
- Coping Strategies
- Measures of Depression as a Clinical Disorder
- Personal Control
- Measures of Psychological Stress
- Purpose in Life
- Social Support
- Social Conflict
- Subjective Social Status
- Exposure to Violence
- Vitality and Vigor
References to studies that examine the relationship between the Perceived Stress Scale and Biological or Verified Disease Outcomes
Burns, V.E., Drayson, M., Ring, C. et al. Perceived stress and psychological well-being are associated with antibody status after meningitis C conjugate vaccination. Psychosomatic Medicine. 2002; 64(6):963-70.
Carpenter, L.L., Tyrka, A.R., McDougle, C.J. et al. Cerebrospinal fluid corticotropin-releasing factor and perceived early-life stress in depressed patients and health control subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004; 29(4):777-84.
Cobb, J. M. T. and Steptoe, A. Psychosocial stress and susceptibility to upper respiratory tract illness in an adult population sample. Psychosomatic Medicine. 1996; 58:404-412.
Cohen, S.; Doyle, W. J., and Skoner, D. P. Psychological stress, cytokine production and severity of upper respiratory infection. Psychosomatic Medicine. 1999; 61:175-180.
Cohen, S.; Tyrrell, D. A. J., and Smith, A. P. Negative life events, perceived stress, negative affect, and susceptibility to the common cold. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1993; 64:131-140.
Cruess, D. G.; Antoni, M. H.; Kumar, M.; Ironson, G.; McCabe, P.; Fernandez, J. B.; Fletcher, M., and Schneiderman, N. Cognitive-behavioral stress management buffers decreases in dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and increases in the cortisol/DHEA-S ratio and reduces mood disturbance and perceived stress among HIV-seropositive men. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1999; 24(5):537-549.
Culhane, J.F., Rauh, V., McCollum, K.F. et al. Maternal stress is associated with bacterial vaginosis in human prenancy. Maternal and Child Health Journal. 2001;5(2):127-34.
Dyck, D. G.; Short, R., and Vitaliano, P. P. Predictors of burden and infectious illness in schizophrenia caregivers. Psychosomatic Medicine. 1999; 61:411-419.
Ebrecht, M., Hextall, J., Kirtley, L.G. et al. Perceived stress and cortisol levels predict speed of wound healing in healthy male adults. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2004; 29(6):798-809.
Garg, A., Chren, M.M., Sands, L.P. et al. Psychological stress perturbs epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis: implications for the pathogenesis of stress-associated skin disorders. Archives of Dermatology. 2001; 137(1):53-9.
Glaser, R.; Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K.; Marucha, P. T.; MacCallum, R. C.; Laskowski, B. F., and Malarkey, W. B. Stress-related changes in proinflammatory cytokine production in wounds. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999; 56:450-456.
Kramer, J.R., Ledolter, J., Manos, G.N. et al. Stress and metabolic control in diabetes mellitus: methodological issues and an illustrative analysis. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2000; 22(1):17-28.
Labbate, L. A.; Fava, M.; Oleshansky, M.; Zoltec, J., and et al. Physical fitness and perceived stress: relationships with coronary artery disease risk factors. Psychosomatics. 1995; 36(6):555--560.
Maes, M.; Van Bockstaele, D. R.; Gastel, A.; Song, C.; Schotte, C.; Neels, H.; DeMeester, I.; Scharpe, S., and Janca, A. The effects of psychological stress on leukocyte subset distribution in humans: evidence of immune activation. Neuropsychobiology. 1999; 39(1):1-9.
Malarkey, W. B.; Pearl, D. K.; Demers, L. M.; Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., and Glaser, R. Influence of academic stress and season on 24-hour mean concentrations of ACTH, cortisol, and beta-endorphin. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1995; 20(5):499-508.
Pruessner, J. C.; Hellhammer, D. H., and Kirschbaum, C. Burnout, perceived stress, and cortisol responses to awakening. Psychosomatic Medicine. 1999; 61:197-204.
Ruiz, R.J., Fullerton, J., Brown, C.E. et al. Relationships of cortisol, perceived stress, genitourinary infections, and fetal fibronectin to gestational age at birth. Biological Research for Nursing. 2001; 3(1):39-48.
Stone, A. A.; Mezzacappa, E. S.; Donatone, B. A., and Gonder, M. Psychosocial stress and social support are associated with prostate-specific antigen levels in men: results from a community screening program. Health Psychology. 1999; 18:482-486.
Stoney, C. M.; Niaura, R.; Bausserman, L., and Matacin, M. Lipid reactivity to stress: comparison of chronic and acute stress responses in middle-aged airline pilots. Health Psychology. 1999; 18(3):241-250.
van Eck, M. M. and Nicolson, N. A. Perceived stress and salivary cortisol in daily life. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 1994; 16(3):221-227.